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Although decoration and furnishings createdAnother striking feature is the absence

The music hall also came into prominence, as incidental entertainment was separated from drama. By the middle s, after the defeat of Napoleon, the political turbulence in Germany led to municipal control over the theatre and strict censorship.

For him the theatre could no longer be the aggregate of the parts contributed by various hands. Actors typically had fantastic stage names that described typical roles or stereotypical characters. He then hung tapestries at right angles to the proscenium, thus masking the sides of the stage. These two huge theatres contained two royal boxes, huge galleries, and a pit with benches where people could come and go during performances. Since the groove system of scene-changing was unsuitable for such pieces, he dispensed with it and hired a crew of stage hands.

In the early part of the century, the theatre performances took place twice a week starting at two or three o'clock. While the members of his troupe changed considerably during its three-decade history, it was the best example of the permanent stock company in the history of the American theatre.

The adaptation by George Aiken was a six-act production that stood on its own, without an other entertainments or afterpiece. Using the front part of the stage as a large open space, he built a unit in the rear consisting of two stairs leading to an acting area eight feet above stage level. Unlike most of the gloomy and intensely serious work of their contemporaries, Shaw and Wilde wrote primarily in the comic form. The next development in spectacle was the moving panorama, in which a continuous scene was painted on a long cloth, hung from an overhead track, and attached at both ends to spools. It took the lives of common people seriously and paid much respect to their superior purity and wisdom.

Another striking feature is the absence of any radial or parallel aisles. Although decoration and furnishings created an impression of luxury, the early urban theatres were in fact filthy and rat-infested.

Between them they established the principle that a production should be subordinated to the will of one individual who directs and integrates all aspects of the preparation. Its shape, though, was altered to resemble the diorama.