Philosophical History and the Problem of Consciousness by Paul M. Livingston download in iPad, ePub, pdf
The link with freedom seems strongest for the meta-mental form of consciousness given its emphasis on self-awareness, but potential connections also seem possible for most of the other sorts as well. They acknowledge the reality of consciousness but aim to locate it within the physical world on the basis of some psycho-physical relation short of strict property identity. Conscious states in this sense involve a form of meta-mentality or meta-intentionality in so far as they require mental states that are themselves about mental states.
In particular one should distinguish between constitutive cases and cases of contingent realization. Eliminativist theories reductively deny the existence of consciousness or at least the existence of some of its commonly accepted sorts or features. If so, there may be quite other means of achieving a comparable result without qualitative or phenomenal consciousness.
Or we could try to explain the subjectivity of either qualitative or meta-mental consciousness. However, at least in the normal case, the negative motivational force of pain seems built right into the feel of the experience itself. If dualism is true, then consciousness in at least some of its types may be basic and fundamental. Fundamental property dualism regards conscious mental properties as basic constituents of reality on a par with fundamental physical properties such as electromagnetic charge.
In that sense organisms would not count as conscious when asleep or in any of the deeper levels of coma. The diagnosis offered is that analytic philosophy has a conception of meaning and explanation which it mistakenly regards as universally correct.
There are at least six major options. Moreover, the model makes intelligible how the liquidity is produced by the micro-properties. Hence, consciousness arguably must be irremediably problematized by physicalism.
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