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Eco-Responsible Cities and the Global Ocean by Voula P. Mega download in iPad, ePub, pdf

This chapter examines how some of these important characteristics of the oceans have changed over time. The Mid-Atlantic region suffers the highest number of coastal flood days and has also experienced the largest increases in flooding. Changes in ocean temperatures and currents brought about by climate change will lead to alterations in climate patterns around the world.

Planners should always consider the specific local needs of a city, whatever its size. Changes in sea level relative to the land vary by region. Cities should not neglect existing seawalls and levee structures, but they should be part of a broader strategy. Increased ocean acidity makes it more difficult for certain organisms, such as corals and shellfish, to build their skeletons and shells. The city, also named Tybee Island, developed a resilience plan to cope with rising sea levels.

Coastal Resilience in

Three independent analyses show that the amount of heat stored in the ocean has increased substantially since the s. These islands are the first line of defense against storm surge, whether from tropical cyclones or other storms at sea. Earlier work accounted for glacial and Arctic melt, but had greater uncertainty about the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The risks of sea level rise to coastal cities must be taken seriously, and the kinds of concrete, specific, individually tailored flood resilience plans illustrated here are a very positive step. First, coastal cities at particular risk of flooding should protect any natural barrier islands that are present.

The project officials

The project officials then proposed improvement suggestions for each seawall examined. Coastal Resilience in the United States Several American coastal cities have begun plans to minimize the effects of sea level rise. As greenhouse gases trap more energy from the sun, the oceans are absorbing more heat, resulting in an increase in sea surface temperatures and rising sea level. Changes in ocean systems generally occur over much longer time periods than in the atmosphere, where storms can form and dissipate in a single day. The national government of Australia has issued a strategic plan for climate resilience and adaption, which recommends procedures to states and municipalities.